SERVO's:   Introduction to Servo's

A servomotor is a rotary or linear actuator that allows for precise control of angular or linear position, velocity and acceleration.
It consists of a motor coupled to a sensor or sensors that provide either position or velocity feedback.
Servomotors are not a specific class of motor.
Servomotor is a term used to refer to motors suitable for use in a closed-loop control systems utilising
negative feedback to correct the performance of a mechanism and is defined by its function.
They are particularly suited for use in applications such as robotics, CNC machinery or automated manufacturing.


 STEPPER MOTORS: Introduction to Stepper motors

There are four main types of stepper motors.

  • Permanent magnet stepper

  • 2.Hybrid synchronous stepper

  • 3.Variable reluctance stepper

  • 4.Lavet type stepping motor

Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets.

Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to achieve maximum power in a small package size.

Variable reluctance (VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle that minimum reluctance occurs with minimum gap.

Lavet type stepping motors are a special kind of single-phase stepping motor.


PLC Code, "Keep it Simple" Ladder Logic





MACHINE SAFETY: Guide to Machinery (Safety) Regulations

Machinery (Safety) Regulations 2008, as amended by the Supply of Machinery (Safety) (Amendment) Regulations 2011.

All new machinery in scope of the Machinery Directive has to be designed and constructed to meet common minimum European requirements for safety.

The outward signs of compliance are CE marking on the equipment and a document (Declaration of Conformity) issued by the Responsible Person (normally the manufacturer) declaring the product's conformity.

To achieve compliance the Responsible Person must undertake a conformity assessment process to meet the Directive's obligations.

This includes meeting all relevant essential health and safety requirements (EHSRs) for the product, producing comprehensive user instructions, and showing how compliance has been achieved in the technical file.

For certain higher risk products the conformity assessment process will normally require the use of an independent Notified Body.

CNC: Computerised Numerical Control (CNC)

"CNC" refers specifically to the computer control of machine tools.

The main purpose of CNC Milling Machines is to repeatedly manufacture complex parts in metal or other materials.

Using a specially coded program. This specially coded program in a notation called G-code.

G-codes represent specific CNC Milling functions in alphanumeric format.

CNC Milling was developed in the late 1940's and early 1950's by the MIT Servomechanism Laboratory.

EMC:  Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directive